ISTANBUL — From hovering bridges to a large mosque to plans for the world’s largest airport, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan of Turkey has used gargantuan constructing tasks as an engine of development and a signature approach of leaving an indelible stamp on his nation.
As he campaigns for re-election on Sunday, Mr. Erdogan has promised his most bold venture but: a canal that will bisect the nation and create a Turkish-owned commerce route, which he says would make Turkey a nice energy and go away a legacy for the historical past books.
“What makes Panama is the Panama Canal,” Mr. Erdogan informed supporters at a rally in Istanbul final weekend. “Suez is the biggest source of revenue for Egypt. Let’s have a vote. God willing the Istanbul Canal will be another fresh breath for our city.”
The election is shaping up as an up-or-down vote on how Mr. Erdogan has reworked Turkey throughout 15 years in cost. He has amassed sultanlike powers, jailed political enemies and trimmed civil liberties, at the same time as common annual financial development of 5 p.c has spawned and nurtured a center class.
But the obvious approach Mr. Erdogan has left his mark stands earlier than the eyes of any customer: grandiose monuments and infrastructure investments in nearly each city.
There are indicators that the general public is weary of Mr. Erdogan’s constructing mania. The canal is the most recent dividing line between those that see Mr. Erdogan’s tasks as visionary, and those that say the works are guided by an insatiable development business that has enriched his ruling circle, elevating questions on his administration of a faltering economic system.
Mr. Erdogan called the election a year and a half ahead of schedule, hoping to beat the financial downturn nipping at his heels. A once-fractured opposition has united towards him, making it more and more unsure whether or not Mr. Erdogan will meet the 50 p.c threshold to win outright and keep away from a runoff towards his high challenger.
Mr. Erdogan counts his constructing feats at virtually every election rally and warns that his opponents plan to tear down every little thing his Justice and Development Party, or A.Ok.P., has constructed. The get together “constructed 284,000 classrooms,” he declared not too long ago within the city of Mugla, including “Are you going to demolish them too?”
He lists his huge canal venture in first place on his marketing campaign posters. Not one shovel has been put within the floor, however Mr. Erdogan has vowed to start development instantly if he’s re-elected as president and assumes sweeping new powers.
All of his megaprojects have been about creating symbols of his energy as he goals for a place within the pantheon of nice Turkish leaders, from the Ottoman sultans to the founder of the republic, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.
But the 28-mile canal linking the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara — estimated to price $15 billion, although critics say the determine is nearer to $65 billion, and displace some 800,000 individuals — has been dubbed his “crazy idea” since Mr. Erdogan first conceived it seven years in the past.
“It means crazy, wow, in a good sense,” mentioned Mehmet Akarca, head of Turkey’s basic directorate for press and data and an adviser to the president. “It will make money, and ships will use it, and they will pay tolls to use it.”
That is the hope, no less than, although many doubt whether or not it should ever occur — or whether or not it should work if it does.
Environmentalists warn that the canal would injury the ecosystem a lot that Istanbul may develop into uninhabitable. Archaeologists warning that it could threaten a top-class Paleolithic website. Economists say the venture shouldn’t be financially viable.
“It’s like playing Moses,” mentioned Serkan Taycan, an artist and opponent of the canal who has mapped the realm that will be disturbed.
Ozgur Unluhisarcikli, the Ankara director for the German Marshall Fund of the United States, a analysis group, credit Mr. Erdogan for constructing infrastructure that has helped Turkey’s speedy urbanization by linking cities to at least one one other and to their suburbs. The development sector has additionally supplied hundreds of thousands of jobs to Turkey’s largely uneducated work power.
“One aspect of the big projects is that they are generating growth,” Mr. Unluhisarcikli mentioned.
But Mr. Erdogan’s opponents say his financial mannequin is doubtful, even corrupt.
Abdullatif Sener, a former deputy prime minister, has alleged that Mr. Erdogan’s approach of governing is all concerning the revenue that the president and his shut circle can acquire in kickbacks.
Mr. Sener was a co-founder of the Justice and Development Party, as was Mr. Erdogan, however he resigned from the get together in 2008 as a result of of corruption, he says, and is now working for Parliament with the opposition Republican People’s Party.
“They don’t think about the concerns of the citizens,” Mr. Sener mentioned of the federal government at a marketing campaign rally in Aziziye, in central Turkey. “They think about ‘How can I make my friend, my family, my close circle, my buddy richer.’ With this mentality, this country could not escape disaster.”
Mr. Erdogan has accused his opponents of peddling lies. “We invested billions in Istanbul, and now they say we robbed the country?” he mentioned final week at a rally in Istanbul.
Others criticize Mr. Erdogan for prioritizing development over business and commerce, which might generate extra earnings.
“We are not using the resources in the best way to earn money,” Durmus Yilmaz, a former chief of the Turkish central financial institution and a co-founder of a new opposition get together, the Good Party, mentioned in an interview at his house in Ankara.
“This is all financed through foreign borrowing,” he mentioned. “Are these investments generating enough income so we can pay back the loans?”
Turkish business has shrunk since 2002, when Mr. Erdogan first got here to energy — to 16 p.c of gross home product from 22 p.c — and the development sector has grown as a replacement.
The decline has left new ports and tunnels underutilized and Turkey missing sufficient exports to finance its ballooning international debt, Mr. Yilmaz mentioned.
Then there are the extravagant tasks — such because the presidential palace, 4 instances the scale of Versailles — that appear to be extra about Mr. Erdogan’s legacy than profitability.
On Istanbul’s highest hill above the Bosporus, Mr. Erdogan is constructing the white marble Camlica mosque, appointing it with six minarets, the insignia of greatness.
Many surprise if he plans to construct a mausoleum for himself beside his venture, as did the sultans of previous.
“Some are white elephants, that’s very clear,” mentioned Refet Gurkaynak, a professor of economics at Bilkent University in Ankara.
The authorities has mentioned that development has been greater than 7 p.c within the final two quarters, however the economic system is already stumbling, Mr. Gurkaynak mentioned.
“We are in recession,” he mentioned, and “we are going to have a painful recession.”
Housing development has reached its restrict, and two million residences are unsold within the nation. Construction work is grinding to a halt, and corporations are providing actual property on gentle loans or barter.
In such a local weather, Mr. Gurkaynak mentioned, “Canal Istanbul makes no sense whatsoever and will be impossible to finance.”
It doesn’t assist that the proposed canal route would run parallel to the Bosporus, the place transit is free below the 1936 Montreux Convention.
Officials insist there shall be sufficient site visitors to make the canal worthwhile. But Mr. Gurkaynak and others argue that shippers can be unlikely to pay when there’s a free passage a few miles away.
New oil and fuel pipelines are already lowering tanker site visitors by the straits, in accordance with a report by Istanbul’s Chamber of Environmental Engineers.
The looming pitfalls are acquainted. Two of Mr. Erdogan’s a lot vaunted bridges — the Osman Gazi Bridge over the Gulf of Izmit, and the Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge, which spans the Bosporus — have little site visitors partly as a result of of the excessive tolls charged. The authorities is paying the shortfall.
Mr. Akarca, the presidential adviser, defended the tasks’ financing system, which has been principally a selection of public-private partnerships.
“Turkey actually is not borrowing any money,” he mentioned. “These are the Turkish firms that are borrowing money; it is individual debt.”
But the federal government has assured the loans and the income, so some economists have mentioned that the financing mannequin is enriching non-public companies whereas saddling the nation with debt.
Other resistance to Mr. Erdogan’s constructing spree is centered on the setting and conservation.
To the horror of archaeologists, Mr. Erdogan began the $four billion Marmaray railway venture beneath Istanbul’s historic peninsula, and constructed a freeway alongside the Byzantine metropolis partitions of a World Heritage website, over Unesco protests.
Residents have pushed back towards tasks which have favored development magnates, most prominently on the central Taksim Square, the place big protests exploded in May 2013 to avoid wasting the park from industrial builders.
The protests, which left eight individuals useless and a whole lot extra injured, drew many voters to oppose Mr. Erdogan’s headlong drive to modernize Turkey’s cities.
Yet as an alternative of listening to them, Mr. Erdogan doubled down on his tasks. Taksim turned a image of his dedication to impose his will.
“He needed opponents and victories and symbols,” mentioned Mucella Yapici, an activist and a member of Istanbul’s Chamber of Architects. “Taksim is the most important.”
Last month, Istanbul’s cultural middle, an emblem of Ataturk’s openness to the West, was pulled down on the website, and a huge domed mosque raised reverse it, dwarfing Ataturk’s statue and robbing the sq. of its republican nature.
“This is an attempt to erase the collective memory of the space,” Ms. Yapici mentioned.
Much extra stands to be erased within the canal venture — total cities and villages, in addition to the ecology of Istanbul’s principal water supply.
The biggest concern is the doubtless big influx of nutrient-rich water from the Black Sea, which scientists say would encourage the expansion of algae and kill life in Sea of Marmara.
The Bosporus is so deep that it permits a countercurrent. The canal would haven’t any such balancing impact.
One scientist has warned that Istanbul will come to stink of dangerous eggs from hydrogen sulfide. Other environmentalists warn that the important wetlands utilized by migratory birds shall be destroyed.
The authorities held a single assembly in March with landowners to introduce an environmental affect evaluation. It claimed the canal would have negligible impact.
Istanbul’s Chamber of Environmental Engineers produced its personal evaluation, warning that the canal venture — which incorporates plans for a new metropolis for as many as three million individuals — would trigger irreversible hurt.
“In the long run we will lose the Sea of Marmara and do damage to the Black Sea,” mentioned Sedat Durel, an environmental engineer who labored on the report.
Mr. Durel estimated that as many as 800,000 individuals can be displaced.
They embody a number of thousand Crimean Tatars, refugees from the Crimean War who settled within the Sazlidere Valley west of Istanbul 150 years in the past, after being granted the land by the sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
Their descendants, principally farmers and manufacturing unit employees, are anticipating with some dread any official orders to be uprooted once more.
“Of course the canal is important,” mentioned Oktay Teke, the mayor of Sazlibosna, a village amid meadows beside the river. “But what about all these villages? What will happen?”